Thursday, May 21, 2020

Prevention Of Diabetes And Pre Diabetes Essay - 1604 Words

Type II diabetes is a disease that affects millions of people in the United States and is also a disease that is continually growing in numbers. The cost of the individual and national health care systems is also a number that is growing. Policy for prevention of diabetes and pre-diabetes is something that while has changed some in the past, has been basically the same for the past 20-25 yeas. This disease affects many throughout the country, but effects those in the middle and lower classes due to the cost of eating healthier being greater than the alternative and also due to the fact that these groups are less likely to go for routine health care. Education for the providers and patients both need to be more accessible. Providers education for screening, and implementation of a policy to set better guidelines for screening, needs to be created so that patients at risk can be educated soon rather than later on lifestyle changes. The education for patients needs to be more exten sive in the office and also in the community where individuals are more likely to ask questions and be in an environment where they are more comfortable. Prevention of Type II Diabetes Policy Gap Analysis Type II Diabetes is a growing disease that according to Ley, Ardisson Korat, Qi, Tobias, Cuilin, Lu and ... Hu (2016) approximately 415 million adults are affected by this disease worldwide and in the United States in 2015, $348 million dollars was spent on treatment forShow MoreRelatedPrevention Of Type II Diabetes Policy Gap Analysis Essay1576 Words   |  7 Pagesalso a disease that is continually growing in numbers. The cost on the individual and national health care systems is also a number that is growing. Policy for prevention of diabetes and pre-diabetes is something that while has changed some in the past, has been basically the same for the past 20-25 yeas. This disease effects many throughout the country but effects those in the middle and lower classes due to the cost of eating healthier being greater than the alternative and also due to the factRead MoreEssay about Global Health and Diabetes1323 Words   |  6 Page ssocial justice, grounded in science, focused on prevention and control of diseases, and linked to governments and public policy (Merson, Black, Mills, 2006). This writer is aware of the need to improve the health of the global community and hopes to use this paper to do the following: (a) Elaborate on why this writer was drawn towards a global health career and discuss plans for her future in this area, and (b) Discuss the pressing issue of global diabetes and propose remedial actions that could beRead MoreEpidemiologic Evidence Paper1464 Words   |  6 PagesEpidemiologic evidence that is related to the prevention of diabetes in for adults can be found in many places in the literature. Some issues that come up are how according to Patel, Misra, and Balasubramanyam (2017) the increase in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in developing countries has escalated rapidly due to an increase in populations, overall aging of the population, urbanization, and increase prevalence of obesity. P atel, Misra, and Balasubramanyam (2017) also projects that the number ofRead MoreStudy Design : Material And Methods892 Words   |  4 Pagesrepresents around 52% ( individual) Sample size: The size of the sample has been calculated using the following formula Using earlier published prevalence data from study done in Saudi Arabia in jedda by Bahijri .S.M and et al found prevalence of pre-diabetes is 10.2 % among adult and will use the confidence level 95% with chance error 5% ,and by formula the size of sample is 138 participants. Sample selection: The sample selection technique is stratified systemic random sampling technique where eachRead MoreEssay On The Road To Health With Prediabetes1205 Words   |  5 Pagesnot high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in medical technology, treatments, and diagnoses, uncontrolled diabetes continues to rise in the United States (US) (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2016). Between 2012-2014, 33.9 % of the US population were diagnosed with prediabetes (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). According to the ADA (2016) in 2010 18.8 million of the population was diagnosed with diabetes, 7 million were undiagnosed, compared toRead MoreA Research Study On Diabetes1304 Words   |  6 PagesDiabetes is chronic long term group of health condition with high level of blood sugar which can lead to serious health consequences. Basically diabetes is a disorder of glucose metabolism. Insulin is a hormone that plays major role in glucose metabolism. Food co ntains carbohydrates which metabolize into glucose and with help of insulin glucose enters into cells. There are two main types of diabetes. When an individual’s body is unable to make enough insulin or body is unable to use its own insulinRead MoreTheory To Practice Case Study896 Words   |  4 PagesKayla Tomasauckas Theory to Practice Case Study Paper October 3rd, 2017 The prevalence of pre diabetes is a primary issue. Pre-diabetes can lead to Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) if the individual is not careful. T2DM can lead to higher risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress (de la Monte Wands, 2008). Previous studies researched the effects of over the counter supplementation of carnosine in animals and limited human studies. Strategies in previous studies foundRead MoreA Brief Note On Diabetes And High Level Of Blood Sugar1318 Words   |  6 PagesDiabetes is chronic long term group of health condition with high level of blood sugar which can lead to serious health consequences. Basically diabetes is a disorder of glucose metabolism. Insulin is a hormone that plays major role in glucose metabolism. Food contains carbohydrates which metabolize into glucose and with help of insulin glucose enters into cells. There are two main types of diabetes. When an individual’s body is unable to make enough insulin or body is una ble to use its own insulinRead MoreDiabetes Is A Serious Health Problem Gaining Increasing Global Attention From Governments Public Health Organizations1446 Words   |  6 PagesDiabetes is a serious health problem gaining increasing global attention from governments public health organisations. This global attention can be attributed to the increasing implications diabetes has on public health (CDC, 2016). Every six seconds a person dies from diabetes (IDF, 2016). Despite the measures to prevent and treat this disease, its prevalence is still on the increase, especially in middle- and low-income countries; more so, health professionals envisage it will rise drasticallyRead MoreDiabetes : A Common Chronic Disease1230 Words   |  5 PagesDiabetes is a common chronic disease that causes problems in the way the blood uses food. The inability of the body to transform the sugar into energy is called diabetes. Glucose, a simple sugar, is the primary source of fuel for our bodies. Wh en food is digested, some of the food will be converted into glucose which is then transferred from the blood into the cells however, insulin, which is produced by beta cells in the pancreas is needed. In individuals with diabetes, this process is impaired

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Political Sociology Reading List And Rationale - 855 Words

Political Sociology Reading List and Rationale The purpose of this comprehensive exam is to give me an opportunity to demonstrate mastery over relevant debates, theories, and empirical findings in the major issues of political sociology. I will also examine theoretical and empirical approaches to classic and contemporary fundamental questions of political sociology. My primary goal here is to learn how to think critically like a political sociologist and be able to understand and use the major concepts, frameworks and representatives of political sociology for my doctoral project. Political sociology is a very broad and multi dimensional discipline. Thus, to examine the mentioned issues, I will primarily look at the various cases and hot debates around the intersection of Islam and politics in the modern world. I organized my reading list at five parts that match the scope of my doctoral research as well as expanding my expertise within political sociology. My subfields consist of (1) the overview of political sociology, (2) Islam and Muslim politics, (3) Islam and modernity debates (4) multiple modernities, and (5) religion and immigration: Islam and Muslim in the western societies. These subsections will be particularly useful for me because my research project is developing within political sociology, Islam and politics and multiple modernity perspectives. The section of overview of political sociology will provide me to become familiar with and capable of engaging withShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words   |  115 PagesCultural (Anthropological) Metaphor The Political Metaphor The Psychic Prison Metaphor Flux and Transformation The Dominance Metaphor Using the Metaphors References and bibliography Workshop Aims Workshop Objectives Reading Lists Core Texts 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 7 10 10 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 28 28 30 30 Organisational Analysis: Notes and Essays Page iii Supplementary Texts Extended Reading List Directed Readings Frameworks of Reality: Prediction ControlRead MoreSocial Causes and Consequences of Inequalities Based on Race, Class, Gender, and Sexual Orientation2854 Words   |  11 Pagesconstantly being depicted as the culprits and the prime suspects in any crime. Muslim are always associated with fascism, Blacks are always associated with thugs, Mexicans are always depicted as illegal immigrants or drug cartels, Russians as spies and the list goes on. However, the White people are depicted as victims and innocents. Unfortunately, this false depiction of generalizing racial attributes leads to a false image in the eyes of the majority. It is due to this reason that racial profiling in theRead MoreLiability of Foreigness8530 Words   |  35 Pagesantecedents and consequences of this liability holistically, we argue that accurate reading of the complex and volatile IBE, formulation of a compatible strategy and its effective implemen tation together contribute to good performance. As the resource-based perspective suggests the degree to which firms develop such tacit skills, differentially affects their performance. Firms that excel in these environment-reading skills and are agile enough to quickly adapt to its changes can transform this liabilityRead MoreWhat Does Organizational Change Mean?17842 Words   |  72 Pagesorganizational space and time are unique and linear. The paper takes issue with this and argues that ‘a-centred organizations’ and ‘drift’ should replace conventional definitions of organizations and change. The arguments are inspired by the arguments of the sociology of translation and constructivism, and insights from two case studies of Enterprise Resource Planning system implementations in large multinational organizations. The latter illustrate how defining change is problematic—as new systems gave rise toRead MoreMens Rea The Writing Style and Feminism of Lakambini Sitoy7010 Words   |  29 PagesCONTENTS ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii ABSTRACT iv Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Scope Rationale of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 2 Significance of the Study 2 Theoretical Background of the Study 2 Scope and Limitations of the Study 6 Definition of Terms 6 2 Review of Related Readings Review of Related Literature 8 Review of Related Studies 12 3 Literary Research Methodology MethodRead MoreEssay on Criminological Theories13456 Words   |  54 Pagesnet Website: www.roxbury.net 2 Table of Contents Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Chapter 9. Chapter 10. Chapter 11. Chapter 12. 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It covers much of the same ground covered

Expansion of NATO Free Essays

string(96) " face and more responsible and comprehensive attitude in the post-Cold War world affairs\[15\]\." Introduction North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed on 4th April 1949 after the Second World War as a realization of the importance of close ties between United States of America and Europe for the stability and security of world [1]. It was a watershed event in both the US history and in the history of 20th century, as it marked the isolationist strategy that had characterized US foreign policy since more than 2 centuries [2]. The alliance was seen as a counter strategy to protect Western European democracies against the growing threat of communism under USSR[3]. We will write a custom essay sample on Expansion of NATO or any similar topic only for you Order Now Later on this strategic-military alliance proved an important tool in the wake of Cold War between USA and USSR where it was seen as only safeguard for US and its allies against the expansionist designs of communist countries spearheaded by USSR. However with the disintegration of USSR, unification of Germany and end of Cold War in 1989-1991, the functional utility of NATO were re-examined to decide its future role in the new world order. However, end of the Cold War did not signify end of role of NATO and soon it witnessed the wide ethnic and religious conflicts in the Eastern Europe, especially in Balkan nations [4]. By 1995, NATO was required to intervene directly in many of these affairs as well as play the role of peacekeeper in the newly independent countries. Later on in the decade, the issue of terrorism raised its head, and presented further challenges to roles, responsibilities and scope of NATO’s future strategies [5]. Through the entire decade of 1990s NATO was shaping up its own future action course and on June 8-9, 1997, it took decision to expand and include new democracies of The Czech Republic, Hungry, and Poland, all former USSR allies, as part of NATO[6]. Since this decision has risen much debated and heat over its contextual application in the changed world order, and criticisms have been abundant on the merit of expansionist strategy of NATO in the 21st century world [7]. This paper shall examine the various issues involved with expansion strategy along with their merits and demerits. The debate against the expansion The decision to expand the NATO has created heated debates and arguments, both in favor and against of the decision. Many hold the opinion that an expanded NATO would be beneficial for world order, global peace and security and economic development and free trade, while others view threats of greater regional tension and hegemony of certain nations if NATO continues to expand[8]. The Expansion of NATO is generally opposed on following four grounds[9] 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The expansion involves huge expenditure to protect the allied countries. Estimates have put the expenditure at more than $125 billion annually if US goes ahead with the expansion strategy. 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Dangerously high level of commitments on part of US of protecting the newly enrolled allied countries. Western European countries themselves have demonstrated little interest in the expansion program as they consider it primarily an American objective. Thus it falls back entirely on USA to shield the its allies which may be a daunting and horrific task given the complex geo-political relation they share with each other as well as USA’s former nemesis USSR. 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The third problem is a modification of second problem which involves conflicting nature of relations among even new entrants in   NATO. Further, some of the Central and Eastern European countries such as Hungry and Poland are embroiled centuries long feuds with their neighbors and a conflict, even though on limited scale would make it mandatory for US to assist the member country, thereby widening the scope of the conflict. 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The last concern presented relates to the possibility that expansion may forever engage NATO as a peacekeeping authority in the extreme Eastern Europe where situation among several countries, including Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Hungry, is so volatile that repeated conflicts can break out over a number of years. The expansion and responsible factors   The expansion of NATO came after long negotiations with former communist nations that included Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union. NATO took a series of steps, such as formation of North Atlantic Cooperation Council in 1991 and NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) program in 1994 to develop an amicable and peaceful environment for effective interaction and cooperation for these countries[10]. The decision to finally include Czech Republic, Hungry and Poland came after long deliberations and amidst a growing consensus that these nascent democracies needed to be integrated in the western democratic framework to help them achieve rapid and lasting economic development[11]. Although the debate on this expansion has been widely across political and strategic spectrum, it should be noted that it was not for the first time that NATO had expanded. Article 10 of NATO’s foundation document has given it implicit rights to include new members on their meeting certain criteria[12]. As one of the central premises of NATO is that attack on any of its member would be considered as attack against all and hence NATO would be s justified in taking military action against the aggressor, it attracted many European non members to the organization to safeguard their democratic values, freedom, heritage and civilization[13]. Thus NATO has undergone three major expansions since its formation to fulfill its commitment to stability and continued growth of economy and trade in the member countries. By 1990s most of the eastern European nations were convinced that in joining NATO remained their only hope to protect their integrity, and ensure their survival in an increasingly chaotic political order. On its part, NATO was also eager to embrace these countries has it perceived that most of problems afflicting Europe were occurring in non NATO member countries and therefore by increasing the scope of alliance, NATO would contribute towards increasing the stability and security in the Eastern Europe[14]. Further, the new responsibilities gave NATO the much-required opportunity to present a changed face and more responsible and comprehensive attitude in the post-Cold War world affairs[15]. You read "Expansion of NATO" in category "Essay examples" In wake of these developments, notwithstanding the criticism and debates surrounding the earlier expansion strategy to include the three former communist nations, USA has confirmed its commitment to further expansion of NATO in the coming years[16]. European security and future expansion strategy of NATO As the Cold War ended in 1989, it became apparent that Eastern Europe was headed for comprehensive restructuring and reformulating the strategies that were no longer applicable in the new context[17]. Abatement of hostilities between Western and Eastern Europe provided an unprecedented opportunity to policy makers to work towards attainment of long standing objective of European unification, in which NATO was considered as a powerful catalyst. NATO provided the vital platform where the political, economic and military interests of both Western and Eastern Europe came together and its own regional development took priority with view to strengthen the economic and strategic coalition of European states[18].   NATO was the instrument that facilitated this ideological and strategic unification of Europe. In the view of changed political order in Europe and risks of terrorism, NATO has formed a long term future expansion strategy that makes it open to every European country which seeks NATO’s help in protecting its identity and culture while making transition towards democracy[19]. Although the immediate and pressing needs of any plan of expansion have receded, especially after the successful handling of Balkan crisis by NATO and demonstration of its continued relevance as a capable peacemaker. Also, the latest enlargement, as discussed before, addressed one of the pressing issues on NATO, to form an active collaboration with former USSR supporting countries. Yet the future expansion of NATO is inevitable, as many non –NATO European countries would begin to meet the conditions for entry into the Alliance and may question its commitment to peacekeeping if denied admittance[20]. Therefore considering the requirement of expansion, NATO has planned the procedure in distinct steps, with no-surprise strategy. Aspirants may request for membership two years before the decision making years that are set as 2002, 2008-09, and 2012-14. As strategist point out that these expansions would be limited to introduction of maximum one or two nations at a time, rather than multiple entry[21]. These expansions would increase the membership of NATO to 25 countries, making it one of the most organized and important military alliances in the modern times. The future expansion strategy of NATO comprises of five steps 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Development of military cooperation with the newly joined state under Partnership for Peace (PfP) initiative 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Greater PfP coordination and cooperation to meet expectations and aspirations of new members 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Formation of rules and guidelines that assess a given country’s eligibility for consideration of NATO membership 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Assessment and scrutiny of a given country’s standing in fulfilling NATO’s commitment if accepted as member 5.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Deciding the time frame for new country to join the Alliance. Conclusion Expansion of NATO has to be seen from a broader and longer perspective. NATO has become an indispensable tool, especially in the changing nature of terrorism that is taking global dimension. As once the free democracies of Western Europe and USA combined to thwart designs of Communism, its equally vital in the present scenario for them and the new members to form an alliance that thwarts evil purpose of global terrorism for which an armed, military equipped and strategically capable military authority is necessary. NATO, by expanding its membership, is in the process of gaining that crucial strategic leverage, as well as create conditions in the first place that would prevent many countries to be affected by menace of terrorism in the changed world strategic order. Reference Alexander Moens, Lenard J.Cohen, Allen G.Sens .NATO and European Security: Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism.: Praeger.: Westport, CT. 2003 Barany, Z. The Future of NATO Expansion: Four Case Studies. Cambridge University Press.: Cambridge, England.: 2003 Carpenter T.G and Barbara C. NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality. Cato Institute.: Washington, DC.: 2001 Gardener, H..   NATO for a New Century: Atlanticism and European Security. Editor:   Carl C. Hodge. Praeger.: Westport, CT: 2002. Kaplna, L.S. The Long Entanglement: NATO’s First Fifty Years. Praeger.: Westport, CT. 1999 Lepgold, J.   NATO’s Post-Cold War Collective Action Problem, International Security, 23:1 (Summer 1998): 78–106 Millar A and Plesch D.T. Pushing the Envelope Too Far? Technology’s Impact on NATO Expansion. Journal of International Affairs. Volume: 51. Issue: 2.: 1998. Page Number: 641. Seidelmann, R. NATO for a New Century: Atlanticism and European Security. Editor:   Carl C. Hodge. Praeger.: Westport, CT: 2002. Simon, J.   Central European Civil-Military Relations and NATO Expansion Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, McNair Paper 39, 1995 Solomons, G.B. The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997: The Blessings of Liberty.: Praeger.: Westport, CT.: 1998. Szayna, T.S. NATO Enlargement, 2000-2015: Determinants and Implications for Defense Planning and Shaping. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. [1] A. Millar and D.T   Plesch. Pushing the technology too far?   Journal of International Affairs. [2] L.S. Kaplan. The Long Entanglement, Praeger, 1999. p. 1 [3] L.S. Kaplan. The Long Entanglement, Praeger, 1999. p. 2 [4] A. Moens, L. J.Cohen, A. G.Sens.   NATO and European security.   Praeger. 2003. [5] A. Moens, L. J.Cohen, A. G.Sens.   NATO and European security.   Praeger. 2003. [6] G.B. Solomons. The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997. Praeger. P 1. [7] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003. [8] H. Gardner. NATO for a New Century: Editor.   C. Hodge. Praeger. Westport, CT. 2002. P: 23. [9] T.G. Carpenter and A.B. Conry. NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality. Cato Institute. Washington DC. 2001. [10] Jeffrey Simon, Central European Civil-Military Relations and NATO Expansion (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, McNair Paper 39, 1995) [11] L.S. Kaplan. The Long Entanglement, Praeger, 1999. p. 8 [12] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003 [13] G.B. Solomons. The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997. Praeger. P 2. [14] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003 [15] Joseph Lepgold, NATO’s Post-Cold War Collective Action Problem, † International Security, 23:1 (Summer 1998): 78–106 [16] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003 [17] R. Seidelmann, NATO for a New Century. Edit. Carl C. Hodge 2002. p- 47 [18] R. Seidelmann, NATO for a New Century. Edit. Carl C. Hodge 2002. p- 48 [19] T.S. Szayna. NATO Expansion 2000-2015. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. p-41. [20] T.S. Szayna. NATO Expansion 2000-2015. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. p-42. [21] T.S. Szayna. NATO Expansion 2000-2015. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. p-42 How to cite Expansion of NATO, Essay examples Expansion of NATO Free Essays string(87) " more responsible and comprehensive attitude in the post-Cold War world affairs\[15\]\." North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed on 4th April 1949 after the Second World War as a realization of the importance of close ties between United States of America and Europe for the stability and security of world [1]. It was a watershed event in both the US history and in the history of 20th century, as it marked the isolationist strategy that had characterized US foreign policy since more than 2 centuries [2]. The alliance was seen as a counter strategy to protect Western European democracies against the growing threat of communism under USSR[3]. We will write a custom essay sample on Expansion of NATO or any similar topic only for you Order Now Later on this strategic-military alliance proved an important tool in the wake of Cold War between USA and USSR where it was seen as only safeguard for US and its allies against the expansionist designs of communist countries spearheaded by USSR. However with the disintegration of USSR, unification of Germany and end of Cold War in 1989-1991, the functional utility of NATO were re-examined to decide its future role in the new world order. However, end of the Cold War did not signify end of role of NATO and soon it witnessed the wide ethnic and religious conflicts in the Eastern Europe, especially in Balkan nations [4]. By 1995, NATO was required to intervene directly in many of these affairs as well as play the role of peacekeeper in the newly independent countries. Later on in the decade, the issue of terrorism raised its head, and presented further challenges to roles, responsibilities and scope of NATO’s future strategies [5]. Through the entire decade of 1990s NATO was shaping up its own future action course and on June 8-9, 1997, it took decision to expand and include new democracies of The Czech Republic, Hungry, and Poland, all former USSR allies, as part of NATO[6]. Since this decision has risen much debated and heat over its contextual application in the changed world order, and criticisms have been abundant on the merit of expansionist strategy of NATO in the 21st century world [7]. This paper shall examine the various issues involved with expansion strategy along with their merits and demerits. The debate against the expansion The decision to expand the NATO has created heated debates and arguments, both in favor and against of the decision. Many hold the opinion that an expanded NATO would be beneficial for world order, global peace and security and economic development and free trade, while others view threats of greater regional tension and hegemony of certain nations if NATO continues to expand[8]. The Expansion of NATO is generally opposed on following four grounds[9] 1.The expansion involves huge expenditure to protect the allied countries. Estimates have put the expenditure at more than $125 billion annually if US goes ahead with the expansion strategy. 2.Dangerously high level of commitments on part of US of protecting the newly enrolled allied countries. Western European countries themselves have demonstrated little interest in the expansion program as they consider it primarily an American objective. Thus it falls back entirely on USA to shield the its allies which may be a daunting and horrific task given the complex geo-political relation they share with each other as well as USA’s former nemesis USSR. 3. The third problem is a modification of second problem which involves conflicting nature of relations among even new entrants in   NATO. Further, some of the Central and Eastern European countries such as Hungry and Poland are embroiled centuries long feuds with their neighbors and a conflict, even though on limited scale would make it mandatory for US to assist the member country, thereby widening the scope of the conflict. 4. The last concern presented relates to the possibility that expansion may forever engage NATO as a peacekeeping authority in the extreme Eastern Europe where situation among several countries, including Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Hungry, is so volatile that repeated conflicts can break out over a number of years. The expansion and responsible factors The expansion of NATO came after long negotiations with former communist nations that included Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union. NATO took a series of steps, such as formation of North Atlantic Cooperation Council in 1991 and NATO’s Partnership for Peace (PfP) program in 1994 to develop an amicable and peaceful environment for effective interaction and cooperation for these countries[10]. The decision to finally include Czech Republic, Hungry and Poland came after long deliberations and amidst a growing consensus that these nascent democracies needed to be integrated in the western democratic framework to help them achieve rapid and lasting economic development[11]. Although the debate on this expansion has been widely across political and strategic spectrum, it should be noted that it was not for the first time that NATO had expanded. Article 10 of NATO’s foundation document has given it implicit rights to include new members on their meeting certain criteria[12]. As one of the central premises of NATO is that attack on any of its member would be considered as attack against all and hence NATO would be s justified in taking military action against the aggressor, it attracted many European non members to the organization to safeguard their democratic values, freedom, heritage and civilization[13]. Thus NATO has undergone three major expansions since its formation to fulfill its commitment to stability and continued growth of economy and trade in the member countries. By 1990s most of the eastern European nations were convinced that in joining NATO remained their only hope to protect their integrity, and ensure their survival in an increasingly chaotic political order. On its part, NATO was also eager to embrace these countries has it perceived that most of problems afflicting Europe were occurring in non NATO member countries and therefore by increasing the scope of alliance, NATO would contribute towards increasing the stability and security in the Eastern Europe[14]. Further, the new responsibilities gave NATO the much-required opportunity to present a changed face and more responsible and comprehensive attitude in the post-Cold War world affairs[15]. You read "Expansion of NATO" in category "Essay examples" In wake of these developments, notwithstanding the criticism and debates surrounding the earlier expansion strategy to include the three former communist nations, USA has confirmed its commitment to further expansion of NATO in the coming years[16]. European security and future expansion strategy of NATO As the Cold War ended in 1989, it became apparent that Eastern Europe was headed for comprehensive restructuring and reformulating the strategies that were no longer applicable in the new context[17]. Abatement of hostilities between Western and Eastern Europe provided an unprecedented opportunity to policy makers to work towards attainment of long standing objective of European unification, in which NATO was considered as a powerful catalyst. NATO provided the vital platform where the political, economic and military interests of both Western and Eastern Europe came together and its own regional development took priority with view to strengthen the economic and strategic coalition of European states[18].   NATO was the instrument that facilitated this ideological and strategic unification of Europe. In the view of changed political order in Europe and risks of terrorism, NATO has formed a long term future expansion strategy that makes it open to every European country which seeks NATO’s help in protecting its identity and culture while making transition towards democracy[19]. Although the immediate and pressing needs of any plan of expansion have receded, especially after the successful handling of Balkan crisis by NATO and demonstration of its continued relevance as a capable peacemaker. Also, the latest enlargement, as discussed before, addressed one of the pressing issues on NATO, to form an active collaboration with former USSR supporting countries. Yet the future expansion of NATO is inevitable, as many non –NATO European countries would begin to meet the conditions for entry into the Alliance and may question its commitment to peacekeeping if denied admittance[20]. Therefore considering the requirement of expansion, NATO has planned the procedure in distinct steps, with no-surprise strategy. Aspirants may request for membership two years before the decision making years that are set as 2002, 2008-09, and 2012-14. As strategist point out that these expansions would be limited to introduction of maximum one or two nations at a time, rather than multiple entry[21]. These expansions would increase the membership of NATO to 25 countries, making it one of the most organized and important military alliances in the modern times. The future expansion strategy of NATO comprises of five steps 1. Development of military cooperation with the newly joined state under Partnership for Peace (PfP) initiative 2. Greater PfP coordination and cooperation to meet expectations and aspirations of new members 3.Formation of rules and guidelines that assess a given country’s eligibility for consideration of NATO membership 4.Assessment and scrutiny of a given country’s standing in fulfilling NATO’s commitment if accepted as member 5.Deciding the time frame for new country to join the Alliance. Conclusion Expansion of NATO has to be seen from a broader and longer perspective. NATO has become an indispensable tool, especially in the changing nature of terrorism that is taking global dimension. As once the free democracies of Western Europe and USA combined to thwart designs of Communism, its equally vital in the present scenario for them and the new members to form an alliance that thwarts evil purpose of global terrorism for which an armed, military equipped and strategically capable military authority is necessary. NATO, by expanding its membership, is in the process of gaining that crucial strategic leverage, as well as create conditions in the first place that would prevent many countries to be affected by menace of terrorism in the changed world strategic order. Reference Alexander Moens, Lenard J.Cohen, Allen G.Sens .NATO and European Security: Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism.: Praeger.: Westport, CT. 2003 Barany, Z. The Future of NATO Expansion: Four Case Studies. Cambridge University Press.: Cambridge, England.: 2003 Carpenter T.G and Barbara C. NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality. Cato Institute.: Washington, DC.: 2001 Gardener, H..   NATO for a New Century: Atlanticism and European Security. Editor:   Carl C. Hodge. Praeger.: Westport, CT: 2002. Kaplna, L.S. The Long Entanglement: NATO’s First Fifty Years. Praeger.: Westport, CT. 1999 Lepgold, J.   NATO’s Post-Cold War Collective Action Problem, International Security, 23:1 (Summer 1998): 78–106 Millar A and Plesch D.T. Pushing the Envelope Too Far? Technology’s Impact on NATO Expansion. Journal of International Affairs. Volume: 51. Issue: 2.: 1998. Page Number: 641. Seidelmann, R. NATO for a New Century: Atlanticism and European Security. Editor:   Carl C. Hodge. Praeger.: Westport, CT: 2002. Simon, J.   Central European Civil-Military Relations and NATO Expansion Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, McNair Paper 39, 1995 Solomons, G.B. The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997: The Blessings of Liberty.: Praeger.: Westport, CT.: 1998. Szayna, T.S. NATO Enlargement, 2000-2015: Determinants and Implications for Defense Planning and Shaping. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. [1] A. Millar and D.T   Plesch. Pushing the technology too far?   Journal of International Affairs. [2] L.S. Kaplan. The Long Entanglement, Praeger, 1999. p. 1 [3] L.S. Kaplan. The Long Entanglement, Praeger, 1999. p. 2 [4] A. Moens, L. J.Cohen, A. G.Sens.   NATO and European security.   Praeger. 2003. [5] A. Moens, L. J.Cohen, A. G.Sens.   NATO and European security.   Praeger. 2003. [6] G.B. Solomons. The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997. Praeger. P 1. [7] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003. [8] H. Gardner. NATO for a New Century: Editor.   C. Hodge. Praeger. Westport, CT. 2002. P: 23. [9] T.G. Carpenter and A.B. Conry. NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality. Cato Institute. Washington DC. 2001. [10] Jeffrey Simon, Central European Civil-Military Relations and NATO Expansion (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, McNair Paper 39, 1995) [11] L.S. Kaplan. The Long Entanglement, Praeger, 1999. p. 8 [12] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003 [13] G.B. Solomons. The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997. Praeger. P 2. [14] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003 [15] Joseph Lepgold, NATO’s Post-Cold War Collective Action Problem, † International Security, 23:1 (Summer 1998): 78–106 [16] Z.Barany. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge University Press. 2003 [17] R. Seidelmann, NATO for a New Century. Edit. Carl C. Hodge 2002. p- 47 [18] R. Seidelmann, NATO for a New Century. Edit. Carl C. Hodge 2002. p- 48 [19] T.S. Szayna. NATO Expansion 2000-2015. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. p-41. [20] T.S. Szayna. NATO Expansion 2000-2015. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. p-42. [21] T.S. Szayna. NATO Expansion 2000-2015. Rand. Santa Monica, CA. 2001. p-42 How to cite Expansion of NATO, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Road - How Does Cormac Mccarthy Entertain His Readership free essay sample

The Road text response How does Cormac McCarthy entertain his readership in his text, The Road? Cormac McCarthy’s novel The Road, winner of such highly acclaimed awards such as the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for fiction and the James Tait Black Memorial Award, is based in the dystopian, post apocalyptic world that is North America. It follows the journey undertaken by a father and son who follow the road from the north to the south of America in search of a warmer climate. However, their journey is not straightforward. The storyline reveals the state of anarchy that society has become, and how the slow but guaranteed demise of the human race has pushed the last remaining people to resort to surviving by any means necessary. All moral and ethical codes are forgotten, as murder, theft and cannibalism are exercised by some. The quality that differentiates the father and son from the other desperate survivors is their unwavering religious beliefs and moral code, which is portrayed in the storyline as them continuing to live as the ‘good guys’. We will write a custom essay sample on The Road How Does Cormac Mccarthy Entertain His Readership or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This theme prevails no matter what problem they may face. An example of this theme used by the author is when the father and son find a fellow survivor near death. Rather than either ignore the man and carry on, or view him as a source of nutrition, they give him a meal and stay with him for the night, giving him comfort, company and warmth with a fire. The writing style that Cormac McCarthy uses is one that is both simplistic and extremely detailed. These styles come together to create descriptive phrases that make the reader feel that they are a part of the masterpiece. McCarthy uses a brilliant mix of figurative language and symbolism, which is the reason that Cormac McCarthy is able to consistently and thoroughly entertain his readership throughout the text. The use of language, and in particular for this novel the figurative language, is always a big gamble with success and failure. The way he conforms his writing with a minimalistic and simplistic manner, yet at the same time grabbing the attention of many is astounding. He portrays horrific settings and encounters that are always very effective in making the reader feel a sense of dread and sadness as if it was something that had happened to them. His use of onomatopoeia and similes is one that is unrivalled and can be seen from the first couple of pages, for example, ‘The Nights dark beyond darkness and the days more gray each one than what had gone before. Like the onset of some cold glaucoma dimming away the world’. I believe this is a very effective use of a simile as it paints a very descriptive picture in a person’s head and is something that can be thought of and even felt by the reader. Another great use of onomatopoeia is when the author uses the line, ‘the slight fizz coming from the can’ as this is something we all know of and can relate to in our real lives. The novel is one that is able to subtly but rather effectively demonstrate many symbolic references throughout that are able to give a real sense of a higher meaning to the words we see before us. The use of religion throughout the novel is an example of how Mr McCarthy used symbolism. This is evident in the way that the father will refer to himself and his son frequently as the people to â€Å"Carry the Flame†, a flame that resembles the salvation of mankind in the form of the son, with him holding close the morals and values that used to make them human but has been evidently lost by others. Another example of symbolism is the use of a single gun to signify hope and salvation. It is in this upside down world that a symbol readily associated with death and devastation is seen as salvation by the father and son, because in this world death is seen as a better option than living. This can be seen with the father often reminding his son of the way to commit suicide in times of desperation, ‘You know what to do, in the mouth, point up, and shoot’. This is a very confronting scene as it demonstrates that even though the father and son have maintained the high moral ground and lived their religious beliefs, they are still victims of the mutating evil that is the world they are trying to escape. The use of themes in the text is something that I believe adds a certain type of diversity, a story that is different from others yet still using themes that are universal and easily relatable. It engages a reader mentally and emotionally, keeping them thinking long after finishing the text and referring it back to their own experiences. The themes of paternal love, good versus evil and environmentalism are themes that not only bring up large debates between people, but cause the reader to question their own beliefs and positions if they were in the same situation. Paternal love is the bond shared between a father and son, a bond that is unique in its qualities and depth of emotion and can not be replicated. In The Road the paternal love between the two main characters is tested and strained, with debate and guidance about how to maintain their religious beliefs despite the woe and misery that surrounds them. Another theme used is the age old battle between good and evil. This battle is played out as between the father and son, and the rest of the world, as well as being within the father and the son themselves. These battles depict good as the underdog, and the constant swaying of strength between good and evil feeding the hope of the reader that the father and son will prevail at the end like the fire drake, rising from the ashes and bringing with it a rebirth. In conclusion, I believe that it is the successful mix of figurative language, symbolism and the use of themes that Cormac McCarthy has used that is the reason behind his ability to continue to entertain his readership throughout the text, The Road. As well as being an entertaining read, the book has profound lessons to teach in relation to the strength of individual moral beliefs and how they influence decision making even in the most dire of circumstances. I leave you with this quote, â€Å"If trouble comes when you least expect it, then maybe the thing to do is expect it. † I think this is a rather interesting idea and that when I think of this, I always have the urge to read the book again.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Free Essays on Early Christianity

What do we learn about the life and structure of the church from the evidence of the first two centuries? Defining the term ‘church’ as it was used by the early Christians is a useful way of exploring their lives and community organisation. The early Christians saw the term ‘church’ as â€Å"the designation for the individual community in a particular place† (Brox). This designation shows the importance placed upon the community by the Christians. There was also considerable independence of communities in that they required nothing outside of themselves to nurture their belief. However this did not mean that the different communities lived in complete isolation, in fact the term ‘church’ was also used for all the communities in a region and throughout the world. Thus because of the independence of local churches they tended to develop along different lines with different traditions, festivals etc. These differences were widely accepted and were usually explained in terms of apostolic authority. As an apostle had founded their community in his particular style and because he shared the same basic ideals of the other apostles so did individual communities share the same basic ideals. These actions showed that the church valued belief and faith over the nitty- gritty details of worship. The unity of the church can be demonstrated by the exchange of correspondence between the communities. These letters circulated the main concerns of the church at the time usually to give advice or reprimand a church. The messengers delivering letters were always of the church and were given hospitality. This encouraged further communication between the different churches and also established norms of which churches or certain individuals within the church were accepted and which were excommunicated for various reasons. The churches also gave hospitality to itinerant preachers who had gone forth to spread the word. The presence of itinerant p... Free Essays on Early Christianity Free Essays on Early Christianity What do we learn about the life and structure of the church from the evidence of the first two centuries? Defining the term ‘church’ as it was used by the early Christians is a useful way of exploring their lives and community organisation. The early Christians saw the term ‘church’ as â€Å"the designation for the individual community in a particular place† (Brox). This designation shows the importance placed upon the community by the Christians. There was also considerable independence of communities in that they required nothing outside of themselves to nurture their belief. However this did not mean that the different communities lived in complete isolation, in fact the term ‘church’ was also used for all the communities in a region and throughout the world. Thus because of the independence of local churches they tended to develop along different lines with different traditions, festivals etc. These differences were widely accepted and were usually explained in terms of apostolic authority. As an apostle had founded their community in his particular style and because he shared the same basic ideals of the other apostles so did individual communities share the same basic ideals. These actions showed that the church valued belief and faith over the nitty- gritty details of worship. The unity of the church can be demonstrated by the exchange of correspondence between the communities. These letters circulated the main concerns of the church at the time usually to give advice or reprimand a church. The messengers delivering letters were always of the church and were given hospitality. This encouraged further communication between the different churches and also established norms of which churches or certain individuals within the church were accepted and which were excommunicated for various reasons. The churches also gave hospitality to itinerant preachers who had gone forth to spread the word. The presence of itinerant p...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Pension Plans in the United States After Retirement

Pension Plans in the United States After Retirement Pension plans are one of the key methods to successfully saving for retirement in the United States, and though the government does not require businesses to provide such plans to its employees, it does offer generous tax breaks to companies that establish and contribute to pensions for their employees. In recent years, defined contribution plans and Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) have become the norm in terms of small businesses, self-employed individuals, and freelance workers. These monthly set amounts, which may or may not be matched by the employer, are self-managed by the employees in their personal savings accounts. The primary method of regulating pension plans in the United States, though, comes from its Social Security program, which benefits anyone who retires after the age of 65, depending on how much one invests over the course of his or her life. Federal agencies ensure that these benefits are met by every employer in the U.S. Are Businesses Required to Offer Pension Plans? There are no laws that require businesses to offer their employees pension plans, however, pensions are regulated by several governing agencies in the United States, which largely helps define what benefits larger businesses must offer their employees - like health care coverage. The  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Department of State  website details that the federal governments tax collection agency, the Internal Revenue Service, sets most rules governing pension plans, and a Labor Department agency regulates plans to prevent abuses. Another federal agency, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, ensures retiree benefits under traditional private pensions; a series of laws enacted in the 1980s and 1990s boosted premium payments for this insurance and stiffened requirements holding employers responsible for keeping their plans financially healthy. Still, the Social Security program is the greatest way in which the United States government requires businesses to offer their employees long-term pensions options - a just reward for working a full career before retirement. Federal Employee Benefits: Social Security Employees of the  federal government- including  members  of the military and civil service as well as disabled  war  veterans- are offered several types of pension plans, but the most important government-run program is Social Security, which is available after a person retires at or above the age of 65. Although run by the Social Security Administration, the funds for this program come from payroll taxes paid by both employees and employers. In recent years, however, it has come under scrutiny as the benefits received upon retirement  only cover a portion of the income needs of its recipient. Especially because of the retirement of many of the post-war  baby-boom generation early in the 21st century, politicians feared the government wouldnt be able to pay all its obligations without increasing taxes or decreasing benefits for retirees. Managing Defined Contribution Plans and IRAs In recent years, many companies have switched over to what is known as defined contribution plans wherein the employee is given a set amount as part of their salary and is thus tasked with managing their own personal retirement account. In this type of pension plan, the company is not required to contribute to the savings fund of its employee, but many choose to do so based on the result of the employees contract negotiation. In any case, the employee is responsible for managing his or her salary allotment intended for retirement savings. Although it is not difficult to set up a retirement fund with a bank in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA), it can be daunting for self-employed and freelance workers to actually manage their investments into a savings account. Unfortunately, the amount of money these individuals have available at retirement entirely depends on how they invest their own earnings.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Gap, Inc. Retailing Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Gap, Inc. Retailing Analysis - Essay Example Gap’s trouble in 2001 At the time of Millard Drexter, there were 200 underperforming stores of Gap Incorporated that continuously operate. This specifically decreases the level of profit generation considering that the entire operation of the company continues in a regular manner while generation of revenue came into a downward spiral. Unfortunately, financially speaking Gap Incorporated could not eventually continue to operate in this condition. This is an issue of lack of management perspective and outlook. The company lacks appropriate evaluation system in order to identify its weakest and strongest areas. Unfortunately, this continues to operate and in 2001, the financial performance of Gap Incorporated received substantially small net margin for income. Compared this with the performance of other retailing companies, Gap is far behind and the whole opportunity is lost for the good of its competitors. There is another important view that Gap Incorporated under the manageme nt of Drexter was overlooked. There was lack of market research that could determine customers’ preferences and needs. This eventually is the reason why Gap Incorporated misjudged fashion trends in 2000. It tried to create trendy apparel for young adults but it was not creating greater impact in the market. Customers were ending up choosing other fashion options due to some important reasons including their own style. For instance, it is important to know that American consumers spend less on clothing due to the fact that fashion does nowadays does not only include clothes but other accessories and technological gadgets. For instance, iPods and iPhones are considered part of the fashion trends among American consumers. Normally, niche markets for growth opportunities are the most significant view in apparel retailing industry. However, the market is continuously expanding and there are added segments that need to be clearly understood further. In the United States, size fitti ngs among Americans change over 60 years. In line with this, more data are necessary to be gathered in order to find out the best fittings for Americans. Apparel industry is also competing with vacation, housing and automobile industries. These industries at some point minimize the level of revenue intended for Apparel industry. Thus, with the consumer and market research, Gap Incorporated for instance will be able to identify the right move in order to stimulate needs for its product offerings at the right timing. There is also another important marketing trend that needs to be understood by Gap Incorporated. This is in line with the declining significance of department stores in the US apparel industry. This is how important marketing research is. It tries to help retailers understand consumer behavior and the entire market in general. Understanding consumer behavior means knowing exactly what they prefer over the other offerings available for them. Gap’s spectacular turnar ound in 2003 Gap was able to remarkably have itself applauded for its honesty with respect to improving the working conditions for the manufacturer of its garments in factories. This created a certain level of trust that promotes more than just a promising output. This remarkably opened up the possibility of increasing customer relationship and to ensure trust and loyalty in the end. Not only that, Paul S.